A journey to the Arctic, where polar bears outnumber people, the sun never sets, and the frozen tundra is a geologist's paradise.
by Rose Cahalan
He regards us coolly for a moment, blinks, and then sinks back into the gray waters of the Barents Sea. The Zodiac’s motor sputters to life again, and freezing raindrops fleck our coats and hats as we push on toward the rocky shore.
It’s just another day in Svalbard, the remote Arctic island chain where a group of UT graduate students and professors spent a week this August. The trip’s stated aim was to teach geology and petroleum engineering skills in one of the world’s most rare and compelling research sites. But by the week’s end—after countless hikes and lectures and wildlife encounters and frost-nipped fingers—it would become about much more than that. It would be the adventure of a lifetime.
In 1908, when the explorer Frederick Cook claimed to reach the North Pole—historians are still arguing over whether he really made it—he wrote in his journal, “We were the only pulsating creatures in a dead world of ice.”
Cook missed Svalbard by a few hundred miles, but the sentiment still rings true. Step off the plane in Longyearbyen, the world’s northernmost town and the jumping-off point for Svalbard expeditions, and you’re initially struck by two things: the cold and the quiet.
A wake-up message over the M.S. Expedition's audio system roused students and professors from sleep each morning, shared a weather report, and even included a few words of wisdom.
In summer, temperatures rarely rise above 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and in winter they tend to stay below zero. From April to August, the sun doesn’t set, while from October to February, the land is enveloped in total darkness. In the center of Longyearbyen, where there are shops and bars and restaurants, there’s an almost eerie stillness in the chilly air. People walk briskly with gloved hands buried deep in their pockets, and everyone carries a gun.
Carrying a firearm is required by law in Svalbard, because the archipelago’s 3,000 polar bears outnumber its 2,000 human residents—and the bears are the masters of the land. “We have a saying here,” a scientist at UNIS, the small university outpost in Svalbard, told our group. “If you don’t know what you’re doing in Svalbard, Svalbard will kill you.”
She wasn’t joking. In what is surely among the world’s most unusual college orientation programs, new students at UNIS spend their first day learning to handle a rifle at a shooting range. Step two is an intensive safety course covering all the technical gear and know-how needed to survive in a harsh environment—like how to avoid a fatal fall into a crevasse when hiking on a glacier. (Answer: use safety ropes, and be extremely careful.)
Luckily, our group wouldn’t face such dangers alone. We would be traveling in comfort aboard the M.S. Expedition, a cruise liner chartered by the Norwegian oil company Statoil. For the past 13 years, Statoil has hosted a field class called Svalex (for “Svalbard expedition”) aboard the Expedition. Every summer, the course brings Norwegian graduate students to Svalbard—a territory of Norway, located about halfway between the European mainland and the North Pole—to study the area’s unique geology up close.
Tad Patzek, Chair of UT's Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering
In 2011, when UT inked a $5-million research partnership with Statoil, the University and the company were looking to strengthen their longtime ties. Scott Tinker, who directs UT’s Bureau of Economic Geology and serves as acting associate dean of the Jackson School of Geosciences, remembers the day it all began. As an afterthought at the end of a meeting, Statoil manager Brit Ragnhildstveit told Tinker about Svalex. Would Tinker be interested in talking about a UT version of the expedition? “I almost jumped over the table,” Tinker says. “Would we be interested? Of course we were interested!”
Tad Patzek, who chairs UT's Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, was also instrumental in making the Svalbard expedition happen. He says that while fieldwork trips are common, this one was more interdisciplinary—not to mention more far-flung—than most. “A trip like this, with faculty who have expertise in so many areas and students together, is very rare, and so it’s exciting," Patzek says.
UT professor Scott Tinker explains the Svalbard expedition.
Two years and dozens of planning meetings later, our group of 76—including 58 UT grad students in geology or petroleum engineering, 17 faculty members, and one wide-eyed Alcalde reporter—boarded the first of three flights in a long journey from Austin to Svalbard. The big, boisterous, burnt-orange-wearing, hiking-boot-clad group attracted more than a few stares in the airport. As the plane backed away from the gate in Austin, the PA system crackled to life and the pilot said cheerfully, “Good luck to all you UT Longhorns!”
Kerstin Langenberger, Assistant Expedition Leader
We would need it. After 30 hours in transit and a short first night’s sleep aboard the Expedition, we woke early for the first of many landings. The ship’s crew had already been up for hours, scouting the land where we would hike to make sure it was clear of polar bears. Armed guards would flank us during every hike, although needing to shoot a bear is a rare and tragic last resort. “There’s more paperwork in Svalbard if you kill a bear than if you kill a person,” crew member Kerstin Langenberger says, scanning the horizon through binoculars. “They are such incredible animals, and they are fiercely protected here.”
Seeing a bear in the summer is rare, since they head north in pursuit of polar ice, but summer encounters are also especially dangerous, since the bears are hungrier (less ice means bears have a harder time hunting seals). “I’m extra careful when we’re on the beach,” Langenberger says, “because unlike on land where you see them coming, they can pop up out of the water with no warning, and then we’re in trouble.”
But we weren’t there to see bears. We were there for the rocks.
“We just walked across 240 million years of history,” Ron Steel says. “I don’t think there’s anywhere else in the world where you can do that.”
Ron Steel, Chair of UT's Department of Geological Sciences
A compact man with a Scottish brogue, silver hair, and twinkling eyes, Steel chairs UT’s Department of Geological Sciences. He has made 33 research trips to Svalbard over three decades. Although the Svalex class was officially (and expertly) led by a team of five Norwegian professors, with the UT faculty watching and contributing informally, Steel spoke with singular authority.
To call Steel unflappable would be an understatement. In 1980, he slipped and broke his knee while doing fieldwork late into the sunny polar night on a Svalbard slope. His graduate students had to carry him down the mountain to spend two excruciating days in a hut awaiting a helicopter rescue from their remote research site. Ask Steel what that was like, and he shrugs it off: “Oh, it wasn’t pleasant,” he deadpans.
Bounding across a moss-carpeted valley in the Festningen site of Svalbard, Steel looks far younger than his 68 years. He has a bounce in his step, and it’s not just the springy permafrost underfoot, which feels a bit like walking on a very large mattress. As students walk up to the outcrops and sketch geologic formations in yellow field notebooks, Steel hovers, always with a question or a few words of encouragement, pushing the students to get even closer to their subject. “Beyond looking at the rocks,” he says, “you should feel them in your hands, hold them, even smell them.”
Svalbard's geology offers an easily accessible window into the Earth's history. At the Festningen site, the UT group studied rocks spanning a 240-million-year period.
Svalbard is a mecca for geologists because it offers unparalleled access to the Earth’s history. A full 30 percent of Svalbard is exposed rock, while 60 percent is glaciers, and only 10 percent has vegetation. Since there are few plants on the Arctic tundra, the rocks are there for the taking—a researcher can simply walk right up and see millions of years worth of strata. Fossilized leaves and ferns from the warm Carboniferous period, roughly 350 million years ago, trace Svalbard’s continental drift north from the Equator. Touching a leaf fossil in a land that has been treeless for eons somehow makes the mind-bending concept of geologic time easier to grasp.
Isaac Smith, PhD student, Jackson School of Geosciences
And while photos and diagrams can depict geologic formations in great detail, nothing beats the muscle memory that comes from the real thing. “Photos help, but you never really understand until you touch the rocks,” says Isaac Smith, a doctoral student in geology. “And once you do, it sticks with you for a long time.”
In addition to hands-on experience, the trip also aimed to bridge the gap between geologists and petroleum engineers. Although the two work closely in the oil industry—where most of these students will end up—they use different jargon and often struggle to relate. So the class paired geologists and engineers together in small groups and gave them interdisciplinary tasks. What are the features of a particular outcrop, and what would be the safest, most efficient way to drill for oil there? It takes both a geologist and an engineer to answer that question, and they did, in presentations delivered at the end of long days—as late as 10 p.m.—over tea and cookies in the Expedition’s cozy meeting room.
But the diversity on the ship went far beyond geologists and engineers. It was, as Tinker says, “like a U.N. meeting.” Reflecting the composition of UT’s graduate school, the students hailed from at least 13 countries, from Taiwan to Argentina to Indonesia to Italy.
And the list of professors along for the ride reads like a Who’s Who of the energy world. A twenty-something student might find herself chatting about biofuels over dinner with an engineering and policy expert (Patzek), looking at a glacier with a climate scientist (Rong Fu), or hiking up a mountain with the state geologist of Texas (Tinker). With no phones, no Internet, and no distractions, there were only the students, their teachers, and the landscape. And we haven’t even arrived at the Soviet ghost town.
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